Book One of the Republic

Plato’s main aim in “The Republic” is to answer two questions. One of them is what justice is while the other one is the reason as to why people should be just. The setting of the book revolves around those two challenges where Socrates pose the question, “What is justice?” The major debate that the author has brought about is what constitutes justice in a given country. For a long time, the matter has been of great concern for many writers since the period of civilization when citizens did not enjoy equal rights. Discrimination due to factors such as color, race, religion, nationality or gender has been the main cause of deterioration in many states. The writer of the “Republic” was concerned on whether or not the concept of justice may be determined by citizens in a given state. The application of laws helps to serve the citizens of a just nation in the court of law.

The primary argument that the author advances in the book is the policy responsible for securing the well-being and the good life of citizens of a country. One of the value that contributes to a happy nation is justice. Citizens feel happy and contented when the laws of the country treat them with equal measure regardless of differences in status, nationality, race or gender. Plato advances his arguments through the use of dialogue to persuade the audience about the importance of justice. In the beginning of the book, the characters start with a dialogue. It is a friendly conversation between Socrates and Cephalus. Socrates asks Cephalus about his life experiences after living such a long life in which he has been in a position to acquire a lot of wealth. As a response, Cephalus says that he is happy to have escaped the sexual appetites associated with young generation. He claims that many people try to overcome that temptation without success. Cephalus claimed that his ability to acquire wealth is a good thing since he can pay his debts comfortably.

Socrates admires Cephalus’s thoughts about life especially on the point where Cephalus criticizes other people of his age who have the tendency of lamenting the loss of youthful vigor. Instead, people should focus on making their lives better as they advance with age. When one has the strength and robustness as a young person, one should emphasize on the creation of wealth if offered the chance. The wealth makes life worthwhile since one can pay debts and live a comfortable life. The good thing about wealth is that it offers comfort to the one who possesses it. However, it cannot offer peace of mind since there are many elements apart from money that can make life difficult for individuals. If a person is of good nature, then money can offer true peace.

After a belief conversation concerning wealth, they start discussing just issues. According to Socrates, justice is the act of telling the truth and paying one’s debts. In addition, the ability to treat others equally regardless of their differences is an act of justice. Many democratic countries practice this trait by making sure that every citizen has equal opportunities for a job and public service. The right to vote leaders of choice is also an act of justice since the government gives everybody an equal chance to participate in the democratic action. Although being just improves an individual’s life by boosting his or her relations with other people, Socrates concluded that telling the truth and paying one’s debts is not always just.

At the beginning of Book I, the author introduces the audience to the narrator, Socrates and his peers. The writer has used a casual tone, and the language as well as of expression are rather simple. In this case, the audience can clearly understand the intended message. The author describes the concept through the use of dialogue between Socrates and Cephalus. Socrates inquires as to whether Cephalus’ happiness owes to the comfort of wealth or his peace of mind. From that dialogue, it is evident that a person’s nature can determine his or her peace of mind in old age. The reason is that one can have wealth but fail to benefit from it due to lack of a peaceful mind. Although wealth makes a person’s life more comfortable, it is clear from the author that an individual’s nature is the most important.

Notably, the author establishes the idea that a noble person should possess four cardinal virtues which are courage, temperance, justice, and wisdom. From the analysis, one can see that in Cephalus, Socrates had met a man who had achieved the virtue of courage through the experience of age. Specifically, one requires a great deal of courage to denial him or herself the passions of sexual appetite. Biologically, one was created with a craving for sex and the appetite more so during the youthful years. Cephalus denied himself such pleasures to concentrate in wealth creation. The author tries to prove to the audience that one has to sacrifice in order to achieve the good things in life. Cephalus has also learnt to temper his passions by avoiding sexual pressure. In this case, the author has portrayed him as an individual who has achieved temperance.

In addition, the author portrays Cephalus to have attempted to achieve justice when he decides to tell the truth and repay all the debts. He thinks that one has to achieve the right conduct in order to live a good life. According to the author, the attainment of justice and the establishment of fairness for all is good for a country that wishes to promote democracy. The author’s application of simple language helps him to achieve his purpose of explaining to the public the importance of justice. For people to live in peace and harmony, they have to practice various virtues such as justice, kindness, and integrity.

Overall, book one of the republic is about the philosophy of a good life. Socrates wanted to know what it means to live a good life when he asked Cephalus about the experiences of his lifespan. According to the book, people perceive good life as that which is free from trouble. Wealth is an example of an element that makes life good since it helps one to manage various problems such as debts and diseases. In addition, the ability to maintain peaceful relations with peers makes life comfortable, since there are no disagreements that can lead to stress. Through the use of simple language that entails dialogues, the author has succeeded in notifying the reader about important virtues in life.

Essay on Mindfulness

The global commerce space is experiencing a transformation of the changing perspectives in management. Business executives are realizing the importance of inclusivity of all team members through a people-first model in their organizations. Consequently, firms are replacing the old operational systems to adopt neuro-leadership. This change has resulted in better business outcomes. Therefore, neuro-leadership is an area that business leaders should adopt globally for transformational leadership to influence the marketplace positively.

The concept of mindfulness is an essential part of leadership for modern organizations. Managers can use this concept to develop an in-depth understanding of their environment and clarify the important issues. George, found that by clearing away the trivial worries through meditation, individual can nurture the passion for their vocation. Thus, leaders are able to develop the ability to empower their employees.

Neuroscience also offers a leader an opportunity to have in-depth understanding of the brain. This knowledge of the brain challenges individuals to audit their brain, thus, enabling them to have control of their mind. Therefore, humans can now make more quality observations and decisions in their workplaces.

Managers can also understand their own strengths and shortcomings by being able to take charge of their senses. Thus, leaders are able to remain calm in times of crisis and make logical decisions. Additionally, the concept of neuro-leadership equips a leader with the ability to read social interactions more effectively. Moreover, an acute awareness of the mental perceptions of employees results in the leader’s ability to motivate their followers to steer the firm forward.

Neuroscience researchers are helping firms to link leadership and human interaction. As a result, the executive is adopting effective practices in change management, training, and consulting. Additionally, firms are now trying to simplify the leadership framework to offer more flexibility in decision making. Thus, the company is able to focus on what is essential rather than setting theoretical and unrealistic targets. Besides, organizations are realigning their business strategies based on human’s ability to learn. This realignment has led to leaders scrapping retrogressive employees rating and rankings models in favor of other methods of motivating and appraising workers.

According to George (2012), many organizations globally have adopted the science of mindfulness in the last two decades. He further says that unless leaders approach a chaotic situation with stability and calmness, they cannot be able to affirm confidence to their followers. Leaders who practice mindfulness are able to create better relationships with their workers and improve the organization’s performance. Moreover, neuro-Leaders are equipped with the knowledge to approach a situation by focusing on the components that require attention.

Management can also use the concept of neuro-science to reduce wasting of time while focusing on broader issues as opposed to the core problem. Companies are now offering training on meditation to staff for their wellness while improving benefits like lowered health costs. Employees take time to meditate using systematic breathing techniques and mental relaxation. By using these relaxation methods, employees can reduce stress and focus on their tasks, thus, increasing productivity.

Neuro-leadership along with mindfulness will help to create an effective and flexible leaders. Using neuro-science concept, leaders are able to focus on issues that yield results. Managers develop more clarity through meditation, which leads to logical decision making. Leaders are able to connect with employees more effectively. Additionally, organizations benefit from healthier employees who are more productive. Finally, research findings indicate that companies, which have adopted neuro-leadership record improved performance because of effective decision-making.

 

 

Argumentative Essay on Descartes’s Evil Demon

In his first meditation, Descartes provides readers with the Evil Demon Hypothesis, which justifies him to doubt the existence of everything he believed in. According to Descartes, there is an existence of a malicious demon of great power and deceit, and whose main purpose is deceiving him. In addition, Descartes set out to develop his own foundation of knowledge. To discover knowledge, he uses the Method of Doubt in which rejects whatever was subject to the slightest scrutiny or element of doubt. Nevertheless, it is likely that the Evil Demon may actually be a fictional character despite Descartes’s best efforts to argue that the Evil Demon indeed exists.

Descartes searches for only what he can be certain to represent the truth. Consequently, he uses Evil Demon as a deception factor. The role of the Evil Demon is to deceive Descartes and distort his view of the world. For example, Descartes develop a warped perception of the concepts such as body, shapes, motion, and extension. By using the Method of Doubt, Descartes arrives at one critical truth: the cogito. Under the principle of the cogito, he arrives at two major conclusions. First, he acknowledges his own existence by proclaiming, “I think therefore I am”. Second, he realizes that doubting is proof of the existence of a thinking process, which further means that he exists. Using these two principle beliefs, Descartes is able to reject the notion that Evil Demon can influence him.

Consequently, Descartes perceives God as the non-deceiving being who is an antithesis to the Evil Demon. It is evident that Descartes is aiming to instill in the readers’ minds that there is always a corrective force in every situation. One can argue that the existence of God acts as a fallback position in individuals’ pursuit of knowledge. In this case, individuals have the freedom to pursue knowledge knowing that God is the undisputed being whose powers are absolute. In the modern world, there are numerous discoveries that have led to significant doubt with regards to human knowledge. As a result of these discoveries, humans have become increasingly doubtful on whether they actually know what they think they know.

A recent discovery that has led to doubts about human knowledge is the relegation of Pluto from the planet status. For many years, scientists have maintained that Pluto and Ceres were planets in the solar system. However, scientists reviewed this long-held notion by declaring that the Pluto and Ceres were indeed too small to have planet status. In line with Descartes’s arguments, scientists were convinced of the presence of a truth with regards to the planetary order. In fact, learners all over the world have long regarded the ten-planet solar system as an undisputed fact.

The seemingly simple question with regards to how many planets in the solar system has no forthcoming answer. For example, everyone knows that Earth, Mars, and Jupiter are planets within the solar system, at least for the time being. Similarly, scientists once regarded Pluto and Ceres as planes until a scientific debate arose with regards to how beat to describe them. In

2006, the International Astronomical Union reviewed what constitutes a planet.

The scientific reevaluation of planetary system parallels Descartes’s idea of certainty and knowledge. According to Descartes, knowledge must be certain, and that this certainty is a factor of infallibility. However, knowledge is a difficult concept since evidence always brings about the possibility of error. Therefore, knowledge cannot be infallible as Descartes argue. Consequently, evidence result in infallibility, which ultimately opens the door for skepticism. Unlike Descartes who starts by understanding knowledge in terms of certainty, contemporary scientists have no such considerations. Consequently, they established that Pluto and Ceres were planets, before abandoning this belief upon emergence of new opposing evidence. It means that no body of modern knowledge if infallible, or indeed free from doubt. According to Descartes, humans should have to start from the very foundations of knowledge before attempting to present any scientific findings as the absolute truth or facts. In any case, as recent review of the solar system indicated, humans cannot have knowledge.

Descartes’ view of knowledge has various weaknesses that are subject to criticism. Numerous philosophers have argued that Descartes has established very high standards for knowledge. From his literature, Descartes appears to imply that knowledge must be beyond doubt. Thus, it means that knowledge is infallible which, according to Hume, is reasonable unrealistic. Nevertheless, Descartes’s views appear to be true at the beginning of the meditations. In his subsequent Meditations literature, Descartes argues that he is able to tell what is clear and distinct. However, such posturing is not infallible because humans are prone to make mistakes from time to time. A more credible approach would be to include an element of care to the claims that one can know what is clear and distinct.

Additionally, philosophers such as Hume and Plato have further criticized Descartes’s notion of certainty. His belief of being certainty is somewhat psychological in nature. In reality, everyone can make mistakes by believing that something is certain, yet it is not. For example, for over 100 years, scientists have made people believe that there are nine planets in the solar system, a fact that they reviewed recently when they discovered opposing facts. However, Descartes responds by alluding to the Method of doubt and claims that prudency is a significant factor when it comes to distinguishing what is genuine from what is not. However, one can argue that even with prudency, some situations require humans to have a deeper sense doubt. However, as Plato understands it, the act of distinguishing what is certain and what is not entails a degree of rational insight. Similarly, Hume appears to challenge Descartes’s position by arguing that humans can only establish the notion of ‘clear and distinct’ by what is apparent to their minds.

Descartes also states that “things which I see clearly cannot be other than I conceive them”. This implies that certainty is subject to reason, and things cannot be the other way. In other words, Descartes is of the view that certainty will result in establishment of the truth since what cannot be otherwise must be the certainty. Yet, philosophers such as Hume suggest alternative paths to determining truth and certainty. For example, Hume notes that in every art or profession, a spirit of accuracy results in a greater perfection and also renders the activity more serviceable. However, Hume also argues that it is immaterial how humans acquire such accuracy, as long as it results in achieving the interests of the wider society.

Descartes goes on to argue in favor of the general principle that a thought which is clear and distinct must be believable. In other words, he cannot doubt what is clear and distinct because to be clear, an idea must be. Further, he argues that not only must an idea be clear, but it must also be precise and separated from other ideas. Moreover, Descartes extend the certainty of the cogito by arguing that he cannot doubt what he is thinking about the body because he is certainly part of it. To the contrary, Hume counters Descartes claims of certainty by contending that the mind can only discern what is certain and clear through vigorous nourishing and severe exercises. In addition, humans must be ready to test multiple hypotheses before they can determine with certainty what constitutes clarity. With regards to Descartes’s claims of trusting the body, Hume is of the view that obscurity can sometimes be “painful to the mind as well as to the eye”, meaning that one need to rely on much more than the body to ascertain the truth and certainty.

It is also important to note that Descartes only argues that humans can know a clear and distinct idea to be true only at the time they hold such it in their minds. However, it is impossible that humans can keep thinking about that one thing repeatedly in order to perceive it clearly. In reality, people keep being distracted by environmental factors, thus it is not conceivable that they can retain certainty.  According to Hume, the effectiveness of a human’s brain is dependent on environmental factor. Therefore, it is not plausible to expect a human to process and store information indefinitely.

In conclusion, Descartes thinks that there is an existence of an Evil Demon whose main purpose is to deceive humans. To overcome the forces of the Evil Demon, Descartes argues that humans must embrace knowledge. By knowledge, he means only that information that is not subject to infallibility. However, recent developments in the world of science indicate that people may not actually know what they think they know. For example, the recent review of the number of planets in the solar system is evidence that no knowledge if foolproof. Consequently, scholars such as David Hume have provided criticism on Descartes’s idea of certainty. Hume claim that the notion of clarity and certainty is subjective in nature, and does not depend on the human intellectual capability alone.

A Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass was born as a slave at a plantation farm between 1817 and 1818. Like other slaves, he was not sure of his exact date of birth. He says that, “I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it”. He was able to relate their birthdays with different seasons of the year. His mother was Harriet Bailey and his father was a white man whom he did not know though rumored to be his master. Douglass was separated from his mother at a tender age and started working in his master’s farm. Because of his age, he did not work at the farm like other slaves and was restricted to doing house chores.

Douglass spent most of his life being changed from one slave master to the next. Nevertheless, he admits that throughout his life, he had two main masters. He says that, “I have had two masters. My first master’s name was Anthony”. Anthony was generally known as Captain Antony and was not a humane slaveholder. He took great pleasure at whipping the miserable slaves. Douglass explains a scene in which one of his aunt’s was whipped till she was covered in blood. At the age of seven years, Douglass was transferred to his master’s son in law brother who was known as Auld in Baltimore. Life in Baltimore was better because the slave owners did not want to appear cruel to their town neighbors.

Auld’s wife was kind to him at first because she had never owned a slave before. She even tried to help him read and write, but she was stopped by her husband. Nevertheless, Douglass managed to teach himself how to read and write through the help of local boys. He became aware of the cruelty the slaves were going through and learnt of the existence of anti-slavery movements and other abolitionist. He started to plan how to escape to the North. He was transferred to another master, Edward Covey, who was the cruelest master of them all. He was rented to different masters all of who continued to harass him and break his dreams of being a free man. He taught other slaves how to read and write and was even jailed after he was found planning to escape. He ended up working in Baltimore trade industry where he saved money and managed to escape to New York. He changed his name and married Anna Murray. He later moved to Massachusetts where he was engaged with abolitionist movements.

A number of main themes are explored in the narrative. Ignorance as a tool of slavery is one of the main ideas in the narrative. Slave owners used ignorance as a way of propagating and perpetrating slavery. As Douglass said, the slaves did not even know their birthdays as any documents pertaining to their birth was out of reach. As a matter of fact, many slaves believed that slavery was a natural and normal way of life. Many slaves did not know their paternity details. This means that these children lacked a sense of identity. The slaves were denied the privilege to learn. The slave masters knew that learning how to read and write would give the slaves a sense of self-sufficiency and capability. This would soon lead to revolt, which the masters didn’t want to entertain. Furthermore, with the slaves being illiterate, the slave owners could control what the rest of America knew about the practice of slavery. By doing so, the masters were able to propagate slavery.

Douglass also demonstrates that knowledge is the only path to true freedom. While in Baltimore, Douglass learns of the power of education had and went out of his way to learn how to read and write. This is done behind his masters back through the help of local boys. He realizes that the answer to their long sought freedom lay on education when his master confronted his wife about teaching him how to read saying education was bad for slaves. Douglass shows that education was the primary way by which he was able to rescue himself and also engage other slaves towards regaining freedom. According to Douglass, knowledge help the slaves to identify the barbaric injustices of slavery to their own self and others. It also helps the slaves to view themselves as men and not someone’s property. Douglass also delves into the damaging effects of slaveholding on the masters. The slave owners’ moral health was not spared by the slave holding practice. The masters engaged in adultery and even rape siring children with their slaves. Slavery therefore needed to be completely abolished as it had detrimental effects on both the victims and perpetrators.

In conclusion, the narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass contains Douglass’ life as a slave and his journey to attaining freedom. Having been born in a plantation with no father, Douglass goes through hell as he is changed between slave masters. In his journey, he realizes that the slave owners use ignorance as a way of perpetuating slavery. He, therefore, learns how to read and write and pursues education and knowledge as a path to freedom. He manages to escape to New York after earning some money at an industry. He marries his wife who was a free woman and continued with serious engagement in abolitionist movements.

Essay on Career in Business and Marketing

Business and marketing are two of the most popular career destinations for graduates. There are various reasons why business and marketing careers are appealing to graduates. Marketing enables individuals and organizations to find consumers for their products while firms use business ideas to formulate strategies for growth and expansion. Therefore, it is important for learners to ensure that they make the right choices when it comes to making career choices. For one to have a successful career in business and marketing, it is important to demonstrate high analytical skills, perseverance, leadership, team spirit, good communication skills, and high adaptive capabilities.
Analytical skills are important in marketing and business career for several reasons. First, modern business people and marketers need have critical thinking capabilities as well as possess evaluation skills to enable them perform their day to day duties. In particulars, marketers must possess skills to analyze trends in the industry to enable them make marketing decisions. Second, business owners need to analyze their environment and take advantage of any opportunities that may arise. Therefore, students aspiring to pursue a career in marketing and business must ensure that they improve their analytical capabilities.
In addition to being analytical, marketing and business students must have high adaptive capabilities. Studies reveal that the business environment is highly volatile and keep on evolving. Therefore, for one to succeed in such environments, he or she must have the capability to adapt to new circumstances. For example, marketing students must know that customers’ tastes and preferences keep on evolving. However, by being adaptive, marketers can always change with the times and keep up with the evolving customers’ demands. Similarly, modern businesses operate in volatile environments, thus they need to constantly evolve to remain relevant. Therefore, business and marketing students need to demonstrate adaptive features for them to succeed in the career.
For one to become a successful business and marketing student, it is also important to have an insatiable desire to learn. One certain thing in marketing and business is that the only constant is change. For example, the means of communication in the business world keeps on changing due to the rapid emergence of technological platforms such as the social media and the internet. More importantly, a career in business and marketing entails lifelong commitment to learning and exploration of new skills. Therefore, students must always be ready to exploit learning opportunities such as refresher courses, online tutorials, and workshops.
Business and marketing students also need to improve their communication skills if they want to establish successful careers in the profession. In fact, communication is the bedrock of business and marketing because of the increased need for interaction between numerous stakeholders. However, communication does not only mean verbal interactions. Instead, communication may also entail exceptional writing skills and non-verbal language. Thus, business people and marketers will need to perform all manner of communication, including face-to-face, telephone, and written interchanges with clients and other stakeholders. For students to have successful marketing and business careers, they must be willing to become exceptional communicators.
Marketing and business professionals also need to have strategic thinking skills. Studies have revealed that the ability to think strategically is one of the core attributes of successful business leaders and marketers. Companies seeking a marketing plan will most likely consider concepts that align themselves with the overall business strategy. Therefore, marketing and business professionals need to demonstrate a keen understanding of current market trends and also have the capability of developing a tailored plan. At the same time, professional marketers must consider the overall strategic direction of the business. By thinking strategically, marketers are able to forecast potential issues and establish measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of uncertainties.
Different individuals have different personalities, but marketing and business professionals must make conscious efforts to be engaging and innovative. Within a typical environment, people expect marketers and business practitioners to present themselves with confidence. Moreover, business and marketing professionals must provide the impression that they are on top of their game. With a vibrant personality, marketing and business professionals are able to convince various stakeholders such as clients and shareholders that their ideas represent value for money. Research studies have also indicated that investors are more confident in investing in businesses that led by vibrant personalities.
More importantly, a career in business and marketing entails a great deal of commitment. Individuals who possess high perseverance capabilities are likely to succeed in business than those whose have relatively low levels of perseverance. Therefore, students must have the necessary quality to deal with disappointments and upsets that permeate the business world. For example, clients routinely reject products and businesses constantly face highly challenging environments. As a result, aspiring students of business and marketing profession need to cultivate a great deal of perseverance in order to succeed.
Due to the volatile nature of the organizational environment, business and marketing professionals must demonstrate high leadership capabilities. Therefore, students of business and marketing must know that they will need to provide inspiration to their organizations, particularly during times of challenges. Moreover, they must be ready to take responsibility when things are not going according to plan. For example, for one to have a successful career in business and marketing, he or she must be willing to take responsibility. Research studies reveal that businesses in which leaders fail to take responsibility have more potential for failure than those in which managers take an active role in solving issues.
Business and marketing professionals must also demonstrate the ability to work in teams. Some aspects of organizations function best in team environments. For example, marketers need to work in teams in order to harness the synergies of the diverse team members. Similarly, various departments within organizations operate in teams in order to achieve their objectives. In most organizations, there are projects teams whose main objective is to complete certain tasks within the allocated time. In such cases, team dynamics are important in goal attainment. Therefore, for one to have a successful career in business or marketing, he or she must be a team player. It is only under rare circumstances that individuals never require teams at some point.
In conclusion, students pursuing a career in marketing and business must demonstrate certain attributes that are consistent with the business environment. Most of these attributes will enable the students to adapt well in the real business world. In fact, empirical research studies have indicated that some of the attributes are integral in the success of businesses. To succeed in business and marketing, students must possess certain attributes. Some of these attributes include strong analytical skills, good communication skills, leadership capabilities, teamwork, commitment, and ability to think strategically

Welcome

“Disabled people are more likely than other people to live in grinding poverty. Unless disabled people are brought into the development mainstream, it will be impossible to cut poverty in half by 2015 or to give every girl and boy the chance to achieve a primary education. ” 
James D. Wolfsensohn, former President of the World Bank



At Intelligent Mobility International (IMI), we recognize that immobility can greatly limit opportunities and independence for many people in the developing world. IMI was formed as a non-profit organization to empower people and their communities around the world. IMI designs, produces, and distributes affordable and best wheelchairs to help people with disabilities find sustainable employment, and new hope in their lives.

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According to the UN Economic and Social Council, there are 300 million people with disabilities in the developing world. Of these, 20 million need wheelchairs to become mobile again. Without chairs, many have no choice but to stay confined to their houses or drag themselves along to get anywhere, exposing themselves to potential injury and disease. Many children are unable to attend school. Chances for education, employment, and community involvement disappear. Under such conditions, they often end up either begging or relying on family members to support them.